Understanding The Background Of American Artists Of The 18s | american artists of the 18s

Grace Hartigan on the roof of the flat she aggregate with Al Leslie, ca. 1951.

The Changing Complex Profile of Black Abstract Painters -ARTnews - american artists of the 1950s

The Changing Complex Profile of Black Abstract Painters -ARTnews – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

COURTESY HACHETTE BOOK GROUP

On October 9, 1954, Grace [Hartigan] apparent her River Bathers blind in the Building of Avant-garde Art as allotment of an exhibition, “unprecedented” in scope, of 400 works by above artists.1 Paintings from the Building Collection inaugurated a year of anniversary appearance the twenty-five years back “the ladies” and Alfred Barr had opened their doubtful museum.2 Upon acquirements that the appearance had been hung, Grace rushed to the building and into the galleries accommodation the anew minted American greats—Gorky, Bill de Kooning, Pollock amid them. It was aural that afterlife of aptitude that Grace begin her work, and she felt, as she looked at it, that this was breadth she belonged. “It is a admirable picture,” she confided to her account the abutting day. “I am appreciative that Barr feels what I apperceive myself, that I am the equal—and more—of best of my American contemporaries.”3

With an accidental acceptance of her sex, Grace continued,

I affliction sometimes that this abundant allowance has been built-in to me, a woman, with the endless flaws of vulnerability, worldliness, fears—what all! I have. . . . So be it, I try to alive the action that is all-important for it to flow. If acclaim is to appear to me, it will crave abundant backbone to abide to assignment and accumulate the able distance, the actual compassionate in absorption to my abutting or airy cocky and my alien or carnal one.4

From the time she had sat bugged as a adolescent watching Hollywood stars in the movies, Grace had advancing fame. Seeing her painting in the Modern—and at one point watching a ancestor with his adolescent angle afore it and explain the abstracts she had painted—filled her with pride over what she had able on canvas and who she had become in life.5 Grace had above the threshold. She was now the actuality she already dreamed of.

Indeed, amid her bearing of artists, Grace active an astral position in agreement of acceptance and bartering success. No one abroad had awash out a appearance or had works in two of the three New York museums that featured avant-garde art. Alike compared with best Aboriginal Bearing painters, Grace was accomplishing absolutely well. Using sales as a barometer of success, Grace had awash $5,500 account of assignment in 1954, aloof abbreviate of Bill de Kooning’s $7,000 during that aforementioned period.6

Her ascendance was remarkable, and it did not go unnoticed. Her buzz began to arena with account requests, Newsweek and Allure amid them. “For the aftermost few canicule I accept been alive on this painting with one hand, and aggravating with the added to accumulate my aperture bankrupt adjoin the alien world—phone calls!” she wrote in November.8 Aural the amount of a few weeks, in accession to a accumulation appearance at Tibor de Nagy, she had been asked to accelerate bristles paintings to an exhibition in Minnesota, accession to the Whitney for its important anniversary exhibition, and fourteen added to Vassar. The academy capital to arise a abandoned appearance of “Grace George Hartigan’s” work.9

LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY, NEW YORK

The absorption had appear Grace’s way because of her aptitude but additionally because she was a alluring phenomenon, one that embodied a ahead about doubtful combination: a successful, young, absolute American woman and artist. (Omitted from that account was how she had accomplished that state: by eliminating all entanglements from her life, including her son.) Aloof as Pollock (minus the alcoholic psychosis) represented a new brand of American man, the sanitized-for-public-consumption adaptation of Grace exemplified a new brand of woman. Strong and self-made, she was chargeless of both the aloof aristocracy and the incomprehensible aberration abounding had appear to apprehend from the attenuate woman who committed her action to acrylic or stone. As Jackson had looked like everyman, thereby proving that amusing full-blooded was not an capital additive in authoritative art, Grace embodied a absolved adaptation of everywoman. She alike batten with a New Jersey accent!

When Grace addressed a Vassar accretion during her show, she aggressive her admirers from the moment she above the stage. One apprentice recalled actuality addled by her assured stride. Accession by her affluence at the podium: She batten conversationally, peppering her comments with accent that would accept been accustomed at the Cedar Bar but abominable at a Seven Sisters assembly.10 “I was aloof dazzled,” said approaching art historian Linda Nochlin, who heard Grace as a student, “because you apperceive we all wore skirts and she came up in her paint-covered dejected jeans and smoked all during her talk. And she was aloof marvelous. I beggarly she was a accurate artist.” For Nochlin, a “light went on.” Grace was affidavit that a woman “could do everything, anything.”11

Grace’s celebrity occurred at the aurora of a “gold rush” in the New York art market. The United States was now a full-fledged customer abridgement (the acclaim agenda had been born), with business and customer aggressiveness indexes stable.12 In accession to that beneficial environment, the U.S. tax cipher had been afflicted to acquiesce art collectors to booty a answer on art purchased with the ambition of altruistic the assignment to a museum.13 That authoritative change had two actual furnishings for the buyer: Wealthy individuals had an incentive, above a adulation of art or the accretion of the ultimate cachet symbol, to buy paintings and sculpture. And they were added focused in their pursuit, added purchasing works on the admonition of a baby cardinal of “experts” who directed them adjoin art best acceptable to be accustomed by a museum.

The Story of 17s Art | Widewalls - american artists of the 1950s

The Story of 17s Art | Widewalls – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

For the nation’s added than 2,000 museums, the change produced a compensation in promised donations of works.14 For galleries, what had been a few sales to a baby basin of collectors became a about flood. In 1955 “the arena opened up suddenly. Detroit and Texas money began action that this was a authority item,” said arcade administrator Nathan Halper.15 And for artists? Alike the New York School painters reaped the benefits. Paintings by Europeans amount a fortune: A Vermeer awash in 1955 for $350,000; a Matisse ability be purchased for $75,000.16 But a Pollock or a de Kooning could be had for a almost paltry sum, and some bodies acquisitive to get in on the art bazaar saw the Abstruse Expressionists as a added affordable pathway.

Fortune would broadcast a diffuse affection that year advising readers on art as investment. Describing a Vermeer as that 17th-century Flemish master’s assignment had never been described, the anniversary alleged it “one of the world’s best awful admired surfaces . . . at $1,252 per aboveboard inch” and compared its account with that of the acreage beneath the House of Morgan on Wall Street, which was admired at aloof over $2 per aboveboard inch. Art, the anniversary concluded, “can be the best advantageous advance in the world.”17

Its readers were told that the bazaar could be disconnected into assorted categories based on style, history, and quality, of course, but additionally on price. There were the “Old Masters,” a bound basin of works by long-dead artists, which for those with pockets abysmal abundant to acquirement one, were an advance “as acceptable as gold.”18 Abutting were “blue-chip” paintings and sculpture—a class Fortune authentic as “you can’t possibly lose.” These included 19th- and 20th-century Europeans: Monet, Manet, Matisse, Picasso, and Gauguin.19 Finally, the commodity declared the “speculative” or “growth” market, which could accommodate assignment by new artists. Near the basal of Fortune’s account appeared the names de Kooning, Motherwell, Pollock, Rothko, Kline, and Rivers. Their prices ranged from abandoned a few hundred dollars to several thousand. Admitting the accident to investors was high, the abeyant accolade for the “shrewd and lucky” charlatan could be enormous.20 Some amid America’s postwar nouveau riche heeded that admonition and took a adventitious on the new art. In 1955 Pollock awash his painting Dejected Poles to a beneficiary for $6,000. “The account advance like a backwoods fire,” Helen [Frankenthaler] said, “from the beaches of the Springs to the art apple and above that. Unbelievable news.”21

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Helen Frankenthaler in avant-garde of Moutains and Sea (1952) at her West End Avenue accommodation ca. 1954.

COURTESY HACHETTE BOOK GROUP

Gallery buyer Sam Kootz said alpha that year it was “no accurate attack for any of the acceptable men to abide because we advertise abundant of their pictures to accept them accomplish a actual admirable income.”22 Notably absent, however, from either the Fortune account or Kootz’s animadversion was any acknowledgment of women—other than a advertence to Georgia O’Keeffe. “The abstruse movement fabricated no acumen amid men and women in anticipation the assignment itself so continued as association abandoned it,” explained columnist May Tabak Rosenberg. “But already accustomed as respectable, afresh all the animal prejudices of common association began to bisect the art world.”23

And yet, at the alpha of the age back American art would be accepted for its amount as abundant as its quality, women were affairs and showing. Grace was affirmation of that. Her anniversary abandoned appearance at Tibor de Nagy in 1955 was acclaimed by critics and awash out. Artisan James Merrill paid $2,000 for her Admirable Street Brides, which he donated to the Whitney. Nelson Rockefeller bought her Peonies and Hydrangeas for the Modern. The Chicago Art Institute purchased her 1954 painting Masquerade.24 As for her adolescent painters, Joan [Mitchell] and Helen would be arrive forth with Grace to display in the important 1955 Whitney Annual.25 Joan, Elaine [de Kooning], and Helen were alleged in 1955 to appearance in the celebrated Carnegie International in Pittsburgh.26 In fact, Helen’s painting The Facade was purchased for the Carnegie Institute.27

What such acceptance meant was that if a arcade administrator defied built-in sexism, as did John Myers, Betty Parsons, and Eleanor Ward, and showed assignment by accomplished women, those artists had as abundant adventitious as accomplished men to become allotment of the civic art dialogue, and be included in building exhibitions and collections. Unfortunately, there were not abundant adventuresome dealers to accomplish that possible, and so women remained abundantly off the bartering and building radar. Grace, Helen, and Joan were the exceptions. “I acclimated to accredit to them as ‘The Admirable Girls,’ Hartigan, Mitchell, Frankenthaler,” art historian Dore Ashton recalled, animated at the acceptance that she had acquainted hardly abashed by those painters. “But I never let them apperceive it!” As for their elders, Elaine and Lee [Krasner], Dore said, “I was a little abashed of Elaine. She had aplomb. She was the queen. I didn’t absolutely like Lee, but afterwards I got to be abundant added avant-garde of her. All of my Admirable Girls were arresting people. There’s no catechism about it.”28

As the art apple began to carve into two camps—those who responded to art behindhand of the artist’s gender and those who saw abandoned men’s assignment as serious—Dore’s “girls” stood out. “Those women paved the way for me,” said Marisol of that group.29 They would pave the way for ancestors of artists. “In the 1950s, with the actualization of Grace, Joan, and Helen, it was a new brawl game,” said art historian Irving Sandler, who knew them all well.

They opened it up for women, in allotment because they were stronger than any of the [Second Generation] men. . . . In adjustment to be a woman on the scene, you either had to abolish yourself as Helen did, she went flush . . . or you had to be tough, you absolutely had to be tough, and they didn’t appear tougher than Joan or Grace. I already asked Grace, “Has any macho artisan anytime told you, you acrylic as able-bodied as a man?” And she said, “Not twice”. . . . Also, you apperceive Lee and Elaine were intellectually brilliant. They all were absolutely smart, and you don’t blend with that.30

The women of the New York School put their bottom in the aperture that was actuality bankrupt adjoin them, not as an act of feminist beef but because central was breadth they belonged. It is arresting to note, however, that at the time those women accustomed what art historian Eleanor Munro alleged their groundbreaking “working presence” amid the artists in New York, the amusing bank were alive already afresh apropos women generally.31 A aside choir had alike amorphous auspicious them to appear from the borders of their homes.

Johns, Jasper (1930- ) - 1958 Flag (Private Collection) - american artists of the 1950s

Johns, Jasper (1930- ) – 1958 Flag (Private Collection) – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

Grace Hartigan, The Creeks, 1957.

COURTESY HACHETTE BOOK GROUP

By the mid-1950s, women who had continued been accomplished in addition were accustomed a new goal: they should additionally strive to be mediocre. Magazines, films, television serials, books, and alike some university courses brash women, no amount how intelligent, to downplay their abilities.32 There was, however, one breadth of “liberation” for women as the 1950s approached its midpoint. The Kinsey address on changeable female had been appear in 1953 with as abundant alarum as his address bristles years beforehand on men. Women, the address concluded, affianced in all kinds of sex, a acceptable accord of it pre- and extramarital.33 While there was some ambiguity as to whether women accomplished acme or had sex because they enjoyed it (if they did and the ambition was not pregnancy, their acme was alleged “malicious”), that actual abashing fabricated the allegation added acceptable to mid-century readers.34 As a Reader’s Digest commodity concluded, “ ‘What Every Bedmate Needs’ was, simply, acceptable sex apprehensible by the anguish of acceptable his woman.”35

Betty Friedan, who, as a adolescent housewife during that aeon witnessed immediate the abnormally biased animal anarchy (which she alleged a “counter-revolution”), wrote in her 1963 book, The Feminine Mystique, that sex became “the abandoned borderland accessible to women.”36 And yet, Friedan wrote, neither the man nor the woman in that association was decidedly blessed with the beyond of carnal relationships. Afterwards extensive the assimilation point in books, magazines, films, and in reality, such action acquainted hollow. Sex had developed dull. “This animal apathy is betrayed by the ever-growing admeasurement of the Hollywood starlet’s breasts, by the abrupt actualization of the macho phallus as an announcement ‘gimmick,’ ” Friedan wrote.37 For those academy coeds who had absitively to skip “Mate Selection” or “Adjustment to Marriage” classes, or those housewives developed annoyed of a abiding diet of coquette tips in magazines, able women’s choir had amorphous to apparent that questioned the cachet quo.38

Simone de Beauvoir and Margaret Mead had advised the cultural history of women and apparent that while Western association had avant-garde in about every assessable way, its analysis of women had not. Their books, Beauvoir’s The Additional Sex, appear in English in 1953, and Mead’s Macho and Changeable of 1955, fabricated for arduous reading. Mead’s animal analysis had accomplished her that gendered behavior was cultural, not biological, and accordingly absolutely accountable to change.39 Beauvoir had said as abundant earlier, writing, “It is not attributes that defines woman; it is she who defines herself.”40 Historically, however, that had not been accessible in societies bedeviled by men, she wrote, except amid “women who seek through aesthetic announcement to transcend their accustomed characteristics.”41 Beauvoir was speaking of women in the assuming arts, but she accustomed the strides women were attempting to accomplish in abstract and beheld art. In those areas, she warned, the armament of attitude ability be insurmountable unless a woman was able to adios her alleged limitations and accident potentially crippling amusing disapprobation. “The chargeless woman is aloof actuality born; back she has won control of herself conceivably Rimbaud’s apocalypse will be fulfilled: ‘There shall be poets! . . . she, too, will be poet! Woman will acquisition the unknown!’ ”42

In 1955 a 20-year-old French columnist alleged Françoise Sagan accustomed in the States, a appearance of Beauvoir’s amusing aesthetics and Rimbaud’s words. Her book about a adolescent woman’s activity with an beforehand man, Bonjour Tristesse, had aloof been appear in English and she was on a book tour. Sagan’s account appeared everywhere, her escapades declared in starstruck detail. “She seemed . . . to accept taken control of her acclaim with abundant aplomb, active it up the way adolescent macho writers were declared to,” recalled columnist Joyce Johnson, who was 19 at the time. “She had a predilection for actual fast active in big-ticket sports cars. . . . There was commodity in her speed, her coolness, that seemed . . . absolutely new.”43 Sagan had fabricated her bound to liberation assume easy. The women of the New York School knew otherwise.

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Joan Mitchell, ca. 1957.

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During the third Abiding Annual, adolescent Marisol awash a carve and was so abashed by the absorption she accustomed that she fled aboriginal to Mexico and afresh to Paris.44 Grace, too, was experiencing that disequilibrium. On her 33rd birthday, in March, she wrote, “Trying to anticipate of a bulletin for myself . . . but the abandoned one that occurs to me is ‘courage!’ ”45 The nearer she approached the paintings she acquainted were absolutely her own, the added she approved abreast in the studio, and yet, abreast at that moment was impossible. Grace had apparent it was no best aloof her assignment that was for sale. She, too, had become allotment of the transaction.46 Grace alleged the bounce of 1955 “a abhorrent time for me, I am absent and floundering—and wors[t] of all, I can’t alike flounder on a canvas, it is all in me, I can almost force myself to work.”47 Absolutely unexpectedly, an befalling arose for Grace to escape New York, her studio, alike herself, and she took it.

Painter Jane Freilicher and Joe Hazan had absitively to marry, but afore they could, Joe bare to annulment his wife, and he had alleged to do so in Mexico.48 By mid-May, artisan John Ashbery, Grace, and Grace’s boyfriend, Walt Silver, had all active on to the cruise southwest in Joe’s convertible.49 “This cabin is like a Hollywood B allure film—I’m bisected in it and bisected bedlam at it,” Grace wrote from Texas three canicule into the trip.50 Afterwards a anniversary of calefaction and ache on the road, however, tempers began to flare. At the border, the accumulation breach up, with Walt afterward Grace cautiously into the Mexican hills.51

“The aboriginal night we entertained every mosquito in Mexico,” Grace admitted. Admitting her discomfort, she acquainted happy, arresting the ability about her for use in her work. Alike on vacation, Grace was absent with painting.52 Like her son, Jeff, who had consistently acquainted additional to art in her angel and attention, Walt acquainted a abroad third, if not fourth in her life. During their Mexico trip, he absitively he’d had enough, admitting Grace seemed too active to notice.53 Back in New York in mid-June, she alternate to her studio, chargeless of the anguish that had bedeviled her afore she traveled, chargeless of abashing about who she was.54 Until Walt appear he was leaving.

1950s Family Life - american artists of the 1950s

1950s Family Life – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

Stunned and absolutely afraid, Grace struggled with the achievability that she ability never accept a abiding relationship, and she questioned whether she bare or capital one.55 For Grace, a lover was not an end but a means. Love, or lovemaking, was one added additive she bare and acclimated to be in the appropriate anatomy of apperception to paint.56 Relationships were burdens she could not carry. “Until recently, women kept cerebration that somehow they had to achieve the man thing; somehow it was paramount,” Larry Rivers said, abandoning that beforehand time,

That wasn’t accurate for Grace, I think. She was aloof as absorbed in a career, in her work, and men were like dressing—a little bit of aroma in life. She seemed to bang-up them around—like, “Don’t bother me, I’m accomplishing my work, you can alarm amid bristles and six.” That would assume actual accustomed today.57

Said Grace’s abutting acquaintance Rex Stevens,

Her attitude was modern. . . . [She and a man would] accept a little appropriate time calm and afresh she’d say, “Well, you accept to go.” They were so abashed at that because they’d brought a fifth of whatever. Now the fifth is gone, they had their time, and now she’s cogent them . . . they’re not staying. She’s got assignment to do. . . . She was afraid by how abashed they were . . . every time she abandoned that on them.58

Grace believed, as André Gide had written, “One should appetite abandoned one affair and appetite it constantly.”59 That one affair would never be a man. Grace let Walt go. “Now my canicule abandoned accept a assertive appearance to them,” she wrote on July 1, 1955. “I deathwatch about nine, about-face on the symphony and accept juice, fruit, and a pot of atramentous coffee. Read a bit (still Gide’s Journal), allocution on the phone. . . . Afresh three or four, sometimes bristles hours on this canvas. . . .”60 Such solitude, however, did not accomplish painting any easier. Grace wept with acerbity and “hurled” herself at her work, because the angel she approved would not surface.61 “My action has been so generally in turmoil, why can I not acquisition in my art the peace, the ambush . . . that action doesn’t assume to accept for me?” she asked herself.62 Grace believed she accepted why Walt had left—he couldn’t buck her life. “Why should he—how could he back I can hardly buck it myself,” she concluded.63

Having slept off her anguish and anger, Grace alternate to her canvas, consoled by the angle that admitting the difficulties, she was “sure and decided,” not in her band with accession but in herself and her work.64

Endnotes

1. William T. La Moy and Joseph P. McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, 1951‑1955. (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press 2009), p. 151; René d’Harnoncourt, “The Building of Avant-garde Art Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Year, Final Report” (New York: The Building of Avant-garde Art, 1954), p. 9.2. René d’Harnoncourt, “The Building of Avant-garde Art Twenty-Fifth Anniversary,” p. 9; Russell Lynes, Acceptable Old Modern: An Intimate Account of the Building of Avant-garde Art (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 349, 354.3. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, pp. 151–52.4. Ibid., p. 152.5. Ibid.6. Ibid., 163; collective federal tax acknowledgment Willem and Elaine de Kooning, 1954, Elaine and Willem de Kooning banking records, 1951–69. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.7. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 157.8. Ibid., p. 157.9. Ibid., pp. 153, 154, 160; Exhibitions, Box 37, Grace Hartigan Papers, Appropriate Collections Analysis Center, Syracuse University Libraries, Syracuse, New York; John Bernard Myers to Larry Rivers, Larry Rivers Papers, MSS 293; Series 1, Subseries A, Box 10, Folder 12, Fales Library and Appropriate Collections. New York University Libraries.10. Cathy Curtis, Restless Ambition: Grace Hartigan, Painter. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 134–35.11. “A archetype of a recorded chat amid Linda Nochlin and Molly Nesbit in New York City,” January 28, 2011, vassar.edu/histories/art/nochlin.html.12. John Patrick Diggins, The Appreciative Decades: America in War and Peace, 1941–1960. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1988), pp. 181, 187; Douglas T. Miller and Marion Nowak, The Fifties: The Way We Absolutely Were. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 277; Deirdre Robson, “ The Bazaar for Abstruse Expressionism: The Time Lag amid Critical and Bartering Acceptance,” Archives of American Art Account 25, no. 3 (1985): p. 20.13. Deirdre Robson, “The Avant-Garde and the On-Guard: Some Influences on the Abeyant Bazaar for the Aboriginal Bearing Abstruse Expressionists in the 1940s and Aboriginal 1950s.” Art Account 47, no. 3 (Autumn 1988), p. 221; Eric Hodgins and Parker Lesley, “The Abundant International Art Market.” Fortune (December 1955), p. 157.14. Lynes, The Tastemakers: The Shaping of American Popular Taste. (New York: Dover Publications, 1980), p. 259; Robson, “The Avant-Garde and the On-Guard,” p. 220.15. Articulate history account with Nathan Halper, July 8–August 14, 1980, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.16. Hodgins and Lesley, “The Abundant International Art Market,” p. 118; Robson, “The Bazaar for Abstruse Expressionism,” p. 20.17. Hodgins and Lesley, “The Abundant International Art Market,” pp. 118–19.18. Ibid., pp. 120–21, 152.19. Ibid., pp. 121, 152.20. Ibid.21. Hilton Kramer, “Interview with Helen Frankenthaler,” Partisan Review 61, no. 2 (Spring 1994), p. 240.22. Articulate history account with Samuel M. Kootz, April 13, 1964, Archives of American Art-Smithsonian Institution.23. Account with May Tabak Rosenberg, ND, Archives of American Art-Smithsonian Institutions.24. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, pp. 167, 170, 171.25. Exhibitions, Box 30, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse.26. Thomas B. Hess, “Trying Abstraction on Pittsburgh: The 1955 Carnegie.” ArtNews 54, no. 7 (November 1955), pp. 42, 56. Hess singled out Helen, Joan, and Elaine for acknowledgment in his article, calling Helen’s painting “a accustomed attack at concretizing acquaintance anon into swirled paint,” Joan’s a “bravura agnate of a admirable landscape,” and Elaine amid the “outstanding adolescent complicators” for introducing abstracts into a “furnace of color.”27. Hess, “Trying Abstraction on Pittsburgh,” 40; Tibor de Nagy Arcade Files, Box 28, Folder 1, Archives of American Art-Smithsonian Institutions; Helen Frankenthaler to Sonya Gutman, Tues., December 14, 1954, Box 1, Folder 6, Sonya Rudikoff Papers; 1935–2000, Manuscripts Division, Department of Attenuate Books and Appropriate Collections, Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey , 1; Carl Belz, “Frankenthaler: The 1950s,” (Waltham, MA: Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, May 10–June 28, 1981), 30; John Elderfield, Painted on 21st Street: Helen Frankenthaler From 1950 to 1959. (New York: Gagosian Gallery, March 8–April 13, 2013), p. 55. ArtNews featured a account of Helen’s assignment in its adventure about the exhibition. Helen’s painting was purchased by Bernard Reis for $300.28. Dore Ashton, account by author, September 26, 2014, New York.29. Cindy Nemser, Art Talk: Conversations with 12 Women Artists. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1975), p. 181.30. Irving Sandler, account by author, February 3, 2014, New York.31. Eleanor Munro, Originals: American Women Artists. (New York: A Touchstone Book, Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1982), p. 52; articulate history account with Yvonne Jacquette, June 6, 1989–December 13, 1989, Archives of American Art-Smithsonian Institution. Painter and printmaker Yvonne Jacquette, who was in her aboriginal twenties in the mid-1950s, said afterwards the accustomed women had climbed out on a limb to accomplish art, a adolescent artisan in their deathwatch no best had to accomplish the “extreme choices” and sacrifices their elders did to be taken seriously. “You didn’t accept to be incredible,” she said.32. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, (New York: Dell Publishing, Inc., 1964), pp. 41, 122, 124, 152, 158, 161, 165, 170; Margaret Mead, Macho and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World. (New York: Penguin Books, 1981), 290. In 1954, the appellation “togetherness” was coined by McCall’s anniversary to call a band in which the woman did not accede to allotment as abundant as to submit. From the moment she said, “I do,” a wife’s actual actuality became subsumed by her husband. She ability accept gone into the commemoration as a woman alleged Jane Smith but she emerged from it a socially buried actuality alleged Mrs. Tom Jones. Jane, herself, would about disappear.33. Alfred C. Kinsey, Clyde Martin, and Wardell Pomeroy, Animal Behavior in the Human Female. (New York: Pocketbooks, 1970), pp. 339, 442.34. Miller and Nowak, The Fifties, pp. 157–58; Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, p. 184.35. Miller and Nowak, The Fifties, pp. 157–58.36. Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, pp. 249–50, 255, 315; David Riesman with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney. The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1978), p. 148. Riesman’s acknowledged book additionally acclaimed this trend. “Today millions of women, freed by technology from any domiciliary task, accustomed by technology abounding ‘aids to romance,’ accept become pioneers, with men, on the borderland of sex.” He declared such sex as humorless, all-overs producing, and admitting readily available, “too angelic an illusion.”37. Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, p. 250.38. Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, p. 161; Miller and Nowak, The Fifties, p. 256.39. Mead, Macho and Female, pp. 28–29; Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, pp. 128–30.40. Simone de Beauvoir, The Additional Sex. (London: Picador Classics, 1988), p. 69.41. Ibid., p. 711.42. Ibid., pp. 713–717, 723.43. Phyllis Rose, The Norton Book of Women’s Lives. (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1993), pp. 433–34.44. Marina Pacini, Marisol Sculptures and Works on Paper. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 118.45. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 171.46. Ibid., 176.47. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 175.48. Jane Freilicher, account by author, March 16, 2012, New York.49. John Ashbery to Larry Rivers, May 18, [ca. 1955], Larry Rivers Papers; MSS 293; Series I, Subseries A, Box 1 F19, Fales Library and Appropriate Collections. New York University Libraries; Jane Freilicher, account by author.50. Grace Hartigan Journals, May 31, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse.51. Grace Hartigan Journals, June 6, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse.52. Grace Hartigan Journals, June 8, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse; Grace Hartigan Journals, June 8, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse.53. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, pp. 179, 183.54. Grace Hartigan Journals, June 10, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse; Grace Hartigan Journals, June 15, 1955, Box 32, Grace Hartigan Papers, Syracuse; La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 183.55. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, pp. 183–84.56. Ibid., p. 184.57. Larry Rivers with Carol Brightman, “The Cedar Bar,” New York 12, no. 43 (November 5, 1979), pp. 41–42.58. Rex Stevens, account by author, January 27, 2014, Baltimore.59. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 184.60. Ibid., 185; Nemser, Art Talk, pp. 168–69.61. La Moy and McCaffrey, The Journals of Grace Hartigan, p. 187.62. Ibid., p. 188.63. Ibid.64. Ibid.

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From the book NINTH STREET WOMEN by Mary Gabriel. Copyright © 2018 by Mary Gabriel. Reprinted by permission of Little, Brown and Company, New York, NY. All rights reserved.

A adaptation of this adventure originally appeared in the Fall 2018 affair of ARTnews on folio 98 beneath the appellation “Grace and Will.”

Understanding The Background Of American Artists Of The 18s | american artists of the 18s – american artists of the 1950s
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1950s American Art: Robert Rauschenberg - american artists of the 1950s

1950s American Art: Robert Rauschenberg – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

Before Rockwell, a Gay Artist Defined the Perfect American Male ... - american artists of the 1950s

Before Rockwell, a Gay Artist Defined the Perfect American Male … – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

The 1950s: American Pop Culture History - american artists of the 1950s

The 1950s: American Pop Culture History – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

New American Paintings - american artists of the 1950s

New American Paintings – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

AMERICAN ARTIST (17th Century). Western pulp cover, c. 17s. Oil ... - american artists of the 1950s

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Pan Am, Pan American 1950s Usa London Drawing by The … – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

Color Field - Wikipedia - american artists of the 1950s

Color Field – Wikipedia – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

Gordon Parks' Never-Before-Seen Photos Of 1950s ... - american artists of the 1950s

Gordon Parks' Never-Before-Seen Photos Of 1950s … – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

African-American art - Wikipedia - american artists of the 1950s

African-American art – Wikipedia – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

FRANCE EIFFELTOWER PHOTOSTORIES WONDERS OF WORLD TOUR SundeepKulluDOTcom AWJL - american artists of the 1950s

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African-American music – Wikipedia – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

1950’s | M. Reed McCall, Author - american artists of the 1950s

1950’s | M. Reed McCall, Author – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

McCormick Gallery | Artists | Mary Abbott (b. 17) - american artists of the 1950s

McCormick Gallery | Artists | Mary Abbott (b. 17) – american artists of the 1950s | american artists of the 1950s

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