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Women Accord and Security: A Competitive Edge in Latin America’s Animal Domain

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Chris Telley

The institutions of the U.S. civic aegis association accept recognized, but aloof amorphous to remedy, a gap in how they collaborate with battle environments: the abortion to accept how gender and warfare intertwine.[i] The 2017 Women, Peace, and Aegis (WPS) Act provides a blaring alarm for operationalizing a gender angle at anniversary command akin and in about all activities in the environment. A gender angle is an compassionate of how men, women, boys, or girls are afflicted abnormally by accustomed situation, due to the amusing norms about gender, and how those differences drive or anticipate conflict. Some of the Adversary Commands, like U.S. Africa Command or U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, accept accomplished behavior and programs advanced of the White Abode absolution its Congressionally allowable strategy. However, the arena breadth a angular chip Department of Defense (DoD) gender admission is best bare but still absolutely attenuate is Latin America. The new White Abode activity on WPS, alive June 11, 2019, calls on DoD, amid others, to booty on a host of efforts to abutment the allusive assurance with and for women—this is added than an order, it is a different opportunity.[ii]

Comprehensively implementing WPS programs in U.S. Southern (SOUTHCOM) and Northern (NORTHCOM) Commands, as able-bodied as their annual components, engages ahead beginning assets for acclamation the basis causes of instability. The WPS agenda, artlessly as a anecdotal purpose, is a adventitious to appoint a beginning set of networks with which to abound bounded admission and placement. Emphasizing a gender angle enables avant-garde techniques to clothier accomplishments and accredit acknowledgment in some of the best difficult aegis environments. Also, operationalizing gender assay provides absolute assessable indicators with which to barometer return-on-investment for all U.S. aegis activities in the region. Critically, absolute WPS accomplishing provides a advanced acreage of agency and agency for added adequacy not, as some may worry, addition set of ambiguous ends. In adjustment to advance the “stable, friendly, and affluent states” that the Civic Defense Activity expects, cardinal and operational commands in the Western Hemisphere charge absolutely embrace WPS activity at a local, applied level.[iii]

Latin American governments are abundantly accessible for gender assurance but additionally hardly in charge of assistance. Though over ninety percent of the nations in the arena accept programs to abode women’s issues, alone six accept Civic Activity Plans for gender perspectives in the aegis breadth and the arena is still the best agitated in the apple for women.[iv] While the arena is the all-around baton in aldermanic positions captivated by females, women and girls in Latin America are added targeted by gangs with abominable violence. [v] Bounded accommodation is about base or overstretched so that in some places added than 96 percent of women’s murders go unpunished.[vi] Animal trafficking in Latin America is on the rise, up 300% for those beat Venezuela, specifically.[vii] These sorts of circadian realities are why women accomplish up an anytime ascent admeasurement of bound crossers, now a civic aegis priority.[viii]

Many Latin American blackmail groups already admit the amount of changeable engagement. For instance, aback 1978, Colombian guerrillas accept accurately targeted women for application and alike eventually placed them in acreage command roles.[ix] The FARC alive up to a 40 percent changeable force at its peak; their absolute peer, the ELN, has an about 25 percent changeable accord rate.[x] This allotment is commensurable to US alive assignment changeable admittance and is college than any of the accepted armed armament in that region.[xi] We can see how actively blackmail groups booty women approved in the killing of changeable mobilizers beyond the region.[xii] This abandon is exemplified by the advance on activist Elisa Zepeda Lagunas who was abject to the boondocks aboveboard afterwards her abode was burned, she was brutalized, and again afraid up with a machete for accepting “involved in affairs that don’t affair you”—she survived and is now a affiliate of the Oaxaca Accompaniment Congress.[xiii] Best of the advance for bounded women has appear through bounded nonprofit groups whose leaders accident their lives to activate women to abate or avoid government inaction.[xiv] Women in Latin America buck the burden of abounding of the problems afflictive the region, but they additionally aggregate a ample allotment of the solution, the body of the gender perspective.

Accelerating Our Animal Network

The networks of women and those ambitious to advanced gender issues, that analytical animal terrain, is the aboriginal and best important acumen to body DoD WPS initiatives in Latin America. Over the aftermost decade, studies accept apparent that gender issues are abstruse with how angry effects, and is affected, by the bounded changeable condition. It is now accepted ability that aback women are complex in brokering accord agreements, they are added acceptable to be alive and, conceivably added importantly, to last. In adherence operations, we accept abstruse that women are an bread-and-butter multiplier; they are safer borrowers and are added acceptable to advance balance in their communities.[xv] Furthermore, women accept authentic badly able of active balloter violence.[xvi] U.S. armament efforts adjoin public-private partnerships charge accommodate links to absolute networks of women’s groups in theater.

The 2013 DoD authorization to “effectively appoint women in… aegis initiatives, battle prevention, [and] accord building… during all phases of battle prevention” requires additionally agreeable networks of academics, activists, and journalists whom ability not consistently be affable to the military. U.S. civic aegis institutions appear with built-in accoutrements in the region, accustomed their absolute or aberrant accord in 41 administration changes aback 1898; the American aggressive should appoint activist networks of women as a agency to clean assurance in accessible communities and accredit advancing ones to consign capacity.[xvii]  For the military, this agency networks of assurance that extend from Washington D.C., through accomplice nation capitols, and into the bounded battle zones.

Networks of mobilized women, that will assurance US actors, will be a primary aqueduct through which to abode the region’s best afflictive and axiological issue—corruption. The neuvo-insurgency of narcotraffickers purchasing their way into contrarily accepted babyminding anatomy is adamantine to see and acutely adverse to U.S. bounded goals. [xviii] However, ante of abandon adjoin women associate to perceived and absolute bribery in bounded government.[xix] Once threats are identified, women are abundantly able of staging accumulation activity and mobilizing accessible appraisal adjoin antagonistic networks.[xx] Whether affianced to arbitrate bounded cease fires, lift roadblocks, or absolution hostages, networks of women accept become added able of backroom or track-two diplomacy, from the cardinal to the adapted level. [xxi]  For example: in battle zones, there is about a charge to appoint bounded women’s networks to acquaint the association of landmines and improvised atomic devices, government advice may leave out females, but those females may be bigger at overextension advice to the community. [xxii]

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Local bribery in Latin America isn’t consistently locally grown. The United States’ primary competitors, China and Russia, are affairs ascendancy with bloodthirsty loans and adviser flights.[xxiii] Those antagonistic actors’ called focus on questionably benign basement or acquisitive abutment to dictators cedes the gender amplitude for the DoD to absorb a position advantage on absolute animal terrain. Earning a abode in women’s networks provides the allowances of an built-in abidingness of changeable actors all-important for acting in such a difficult space.[xxiv] 

The intelligence and animal connectivity offered by a gendered admirers offers a glint of achievement in the absolute arduous activity adjoin a base mafia state, whether fueled by biologic dollars or debt-diplomacy. DoD actors can advice their accomplice armament advance in safe accessible spaces, advance the gender focus of services, as able-bodied as empower women to accord to bounded commissions and burghal planning as a way to accompany US aegis interests in counter-transnational abomination and clearing mitigation.[xxv]

Innovative Accomplishments and Prepared Response

The added breadth breadth a WPS activity provides for operational adequacy is the ample arrangement of options for adherence operations and antagonism abbreviate of armed battle that gender-based considerations enable.  During the Iraq and Afghan counterinsurgencies, the DoD abstruse to use Changeable Assurance Teams to appoint changeable populations who were out of ability due to religious taboo. That convenance addle with the alteration to a Abundant Power Antagonism focus; unfortunately, war is still a political animal and with women actuality bisected of any electorate, the aggressive still needs gendered action. “All backroom is local” and accomplice nations about affliction far added about centralized issues than any ample U.S. disinterestedness like counterterrorism; so, aloof as acceptable with bounded abomination blockage provides a aisle to adopted objectives, so too can mitigating women’s issues serve DoD purposes.

There is a abundant assortment of accomplishments cat-and-mouse to be integrated. There are baby contributions to adapted actions; abacus silicone menstrual cups—that can be purchased for beneath than a dollar—to Medical Civil Abetment Programs (MEDCAPs) increases a woman’s concrete and, therefore, bread-and-butter mobility. In some atrocious places, like Venezuela, up to 44% of households are led by women.[xxvi] US armament in Haiti abstruse that accepted aid packaging, the 55lbs bag, was too abundant for a angular distinct mother to backpack and was apportioned by chits accustomed to macho led households; ensuring applied and candid aid administration charge be a key consideration.[xxvii] Operational akin options are available, like messaging which implores women to ask adamantine questions of their sons and husbands advancing to do violence, as women accept been apparent to be added acceptant to antiterrorism narratives and are able-bodied placed in homes, schools, and markets to advance milder narratives. [xxviii] At the cardinal level, Latin American aegis force accord in UN Accord Keeping missions has risen exponentially aback the about-face of the century.[xxix] Accustomed the bags of letters of appeaser animal abandon emerging, U.S. efforts to body partners’ accommodation for exporting aegis charge booty gender-based abandon into account.[xxx]

Any gender assay of the arena bound uncovers some ecology variables that U.S. armament or their ally ability not be accomplished for. Abounding of the adulterous trafficking networks in the amphitheater allotment accepted physical, human, and banking infrastructure.[xxxi] This is abnormally authentic of networks base women, men, boys, and girls beat declining accompaniment altitude in Venezuela.[xxxii] This absoluteness dictates that any deployers be trained, or able to alternation a partner, on what to do when: a doubtable baiter abounding of drugs is instead abounding of migrants; a abode targeted in a counter-drug arrest is additionally a arena to animal slavery; women are actuality acclimated as biologic mules; adjoin the narco-equivalent of adolescent soldiers; or, as approved by the history of the FARC, a force encounters a abundant combatant. [xxxiii] If, alike accustomed adapted training, U.S. cadre still get alloyed up in animal crimes again we can apparently accept that abounding macho deployers abide ill-prepared for women actuality acclimated as intelligence assets by blackmail networks.[xxxiv]

Accessible Ecology Data

The third breadth breadth a WPS activity creates operational amount is a widened breach for compassionate the ambiance and assessing U.S. forces’ appulse on it. The abreast operations that US armament acquisition themselves committed to do not accommodate to acceptable metrics of success: adversary dead or objectives taken. This makes assessing whether they are accomplishing things right, or alike accomplishing the adapted things, difficult. However, seeing the ambiance with gender black glasses is allotment of the solution. Afterwards about two decades of counterinsurgency, best leaders in the force admit that the abridgement of women in a accessible ambiance is about a assurance of antagonistic activity. Women’s movement arrangement can accommodate a aesthetic appearance of the aegis environment.[xxxv] Women’s compassionate of bounded bread-and-butter and aegis vulnerabilities and can acutely add to U.S. absolute area awareness, assurance with a gender angle can additionally admission admission to advice that is harder to reach.[xxxvi] Following the DoD authorization to “ensure battle aboriginal admonishing and acknowledgment systems accommodate gender-specific data,” adapted and operational commands should act on the ability that women are about the aboriginal to actors with an compassionate of approaching battle and that measures of their wellbeing announce beyond trends in the environment. [xxxvii]

Recent assay has provided several sets of absolute accountable metrics with which to adviser changes to the operational environment: aboriginal admonishing signs of ascent abandon or indicators of success. Links to all-embracing adherence are adequately obvious; ample gender gaps associate to lower bread-and-butter advance as able-bodied as college baby and adolescent bloodshed rates. Failed or defective rural acreage rights systems drive battle but additionally abundantly avoid women.[xxxviii] In places with able acreage rights, for women, females accept been apparent to be three times as acceptable to be assignment off the acreage and accept incomes aloft the abjection level.[xxxix] College ante of abandon adjoin women additionally associate to non-compliance with all-embracing norms and accord obligations, as able-bodied as all-embracing acquaintance relations.[xl] Furthermore, abate gender gaps accept additionally been apparent to adjust with college assurance in government.[xli] Beyond the gender gaps tend to associate to added accident of intra-state and artery conflict. [xlii]

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The altitude of women in the environment, about already aggregate statistics, are in actuality assessable and adaptable levers that the DoD can ambition for alteration the aegis landscapes over which it has purview. Tasking units to gather, and staffs to analyze, sex-disaggregated data—not alone from women but demography authentic calendar of the added amount of what women can provide—provides for able arrangement analysis. In this sense, WPS is a analytical adequacy for active avant-garde accomplishments to abjure safe anchorage to bad actors.

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Gender Angle as a Force Multiplier    

The antecedent accomplish for initiating activity on WPS issues charge activate with efforts to “enhance agents accommodation for applying a gender acute approach.”[xliii] Centralized actions, like acquaintance training and exercise book inclusion, are low amount but can be translated into aerial appulse results. There are some U.S. aggressive actors already agreeable women in the field; Civil Affairs teams and Aggressive advice abutment teams currently deployed are the aboriginal to booty into application as the aggressive begins to advance these new options. Advanced personnel, armed with adapted advice requirements, accomplishing appraisal and accountable amount able exchanges as able-bodied as cantankerous institutional engagement, to accord with the Accompaniment Department Bounded Bureaus, USAID, and the U.S. Institute for Peace, are analytical to continued appellation success and architecture the acumen of a trusted partner. These accomplishments are abundantly inexpensive, no charge for systems procurement, armament or operating costs: they aloof charge amorous people.

The absorbed in WPS efforts is not to securitize women’s issues, which ability alone accomplish the anecdotal of women as victims stronger.[xliv] The threats in Latin America, according to the Secretary General of the Organization of American States, are about centered on “organized crime, biologic trafficking, agitated death, abridgement of admission to rights, poverty, and acute poverty,” all of which acerb aftereffect and are malleably afflicted by the activity of bounded women.[xlv] The charge for WPS programs is not about political correctness, tokenism, or brainy calendar but is apprenticed by the arising befalling to advance the operational adequacy of the aggressive units at the adapted and operational levels.

U.S. policymakers accept historically abandoned women’s accord in committing abandon and accept rarely enlisted their advice in stabilizing efforts, now we are seeing a activating shift.[xlvi] Leaders in the aggressive accretion recognize—from contempo adventures in counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and adherence operations—that force cannot break abounding of the basal issues which are bright apparent active battle and instability.[xlvii] The assignment here, for the male-dominated military, is that a gender angle is a force multiplier—such that it deserves far added absorption than aloof part-time representation or a annual brief. U.S. aggressive commanders, in NORTHCOM and SOUTHCOM, charge pay specific absorption to the gender lens of battle to see their ambiance in the best authentic light, out action the bad actors in animal networks, and acknowledgment evolving threats with avant-garde accomplishments for able operations aimed at abiding adherence in Latin America.[xlviii]

The angle bidding are those of the columnist and do not reflect the official position of the Department of Defense.

End Notes

[i] Olivia Holt-Ivry, “Mind the Gender Adequacy Gap,” DefenseOne, July 3, 2018. https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2018/07/gender-capability-gap/149477/

[ii] The White House, “United States Activity On Women, Peace, and Security,” June 11 2019, https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/WPS-Strategy-FINAL-PDF-6.11.19.pdf

[iii] The Civic Aegis Activity of the United States. The White House. December 2017, 51.

[iv] “Nearly all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean accept behavior to barrier abandon adjoin women, but arena is still the best violent, UNDP, UN Women” Nov 22, 2017, http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/rblac/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/11/22/pese-a-pol-ticas-para-erradicar-violencia-contra-las-mujeres-am-rica-latina-y-el-caribe-es-la-regi-n-m-s-violenta-pnud-onu-mujeres.html

[v] “Nearly all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean accept behavior to barrier abandon adjoin women, but arena is still the best violent, UNDP, UN Women” Nov 22, 2017, http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/rblac/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/11/22/pese-a-pol-ticas-para-erradicar-violencia-contra-las-mujeres-am-rica-latina-y-el-caribe-es-la-regi-n-m-s-violenta-pnud-onu-mujeres.html : UN Women, “Across Latin America, women activity aback adjoin abandon in politics,” November 14, 2018, http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2018/11/feature-across-latin-america-women-fight-back-against-violence-in-politics

[vi] Sonio Nazario, “Someone Is Consistently Trying to Kill You,” The New York Times, 04 April 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/04/05/opinion/honduras-women-murders.html

[vii] “Las víctimas venezolanas de trata de personas aumentaron casi 300% en cuatro años” El Pais, 27 March 2018. https://www.elpais.com.uy/mundo/victimas-venezolanas-trata-personas-aumentaron-cuatro-anos.html

[viii] Sonio Nazario, “Someone Is Consistently Trying to Kill You,” The New York Times, 04 April 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/04/05/opinion/honduras-women-murders.html

[ix] Francisco Gutiérrez Sanín and Francy Carranza Franco, “Organizing women for combat: The acquaintance of the FARC in the Colombian war,” Journal of Agrarian Change, Volume17, Issue 4 October 2017, 733. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joac.12238

[x] Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstien, “Women’s Accord in Accord Processes: Colombia,” CFR, December 15, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/blog/womens-participation-peace-processes-colombia.

[xi] Marcela Donadío et al., Women in the Armed and Badge Forces, RESDAL, Buenos Aires, 2010, 56. https://www.resdal.org/genero-y-paz/women-in-the-armed-and-police-forces.pdf

[xii] https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/nov/29/remembering-women-killed-fighting-for-human-rights-in-2017

[xiii] UN Women, “Across Latin America, women activity aback adjoin abandon in politics,” November 14, 2018, http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2018/11/feature-across-latin-america-women-fight-back-against-violence-in-politics

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[xiv] Sonio Nazario, “Someone Is Consistently Trying to Kill You,” The New York Times, 04 April 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/04/05/opinion/honduras-women-murders.html

[xv] Nikki Haley, “Ambassador Haley Delivers Remarks at a UN Aegis Council Meeting on Women, Peace, and Aegis in the Sahel,” the United Nations, July 10, 2018.

[xvi] Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016, 6. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xvii] Gabe Lipton and Alex Kliment, “Graphic Truth: US Meddling In The Americas” GZERO Media, February 25, 2019,

https://www.gzeromedia.com/graphic-truth-us-meddling-in-the-americas

[xviii] Chris Telley, ” Narco-lonization: The Growing Blackmail of Narco-Municipality in Latin America,” Baby Wars Journal, September 2018, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/narco-lonization-growing-threat-narco-municipality-latin-america : Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

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[xix] Valarie M. Hudson, “Women Accord and Security” Presentation at Texas A&M Bush School, December 12 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6M1pqkrvbI4&t=1403s: https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/narco-lonization-growing-threat-narco-municipality-latin-america

[xx] Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016, 6. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xxi] Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstien, “Women’s Accord in Accord Processes: Colombia,” CFR, December 15, 2017. https://www.cfr.org/blog/womens-participation-peace-processes-colombia. : Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016, 6. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xxii] Olivia Holt-Ivry, “Mind The Gender Adequacy Gap,” DefenseOne, July 3, 2018. https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2018/07/gender-capability-gap/149477/

[xxiii] Venezuela Investigative Unit, “Russian Mercenaries Providing Muscle for Venezuela’s Embattled Maduro,” Insight Crime, February 1, 2019. https://www.insightcrime.org/news/brief/russian-mercenaries-venezuela-regime/

[xxiv] Chris Telley, ” Narco-lonization: The Growing Blackmail of Narco-Municipality in Latin America,” Baby Wars Journal, September 2018, https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/narco-lonization-growing-threat-narco-municipality-latin-america : Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xxv] UN Women, “Women in Guatemala beacon change, seek solutions to end animal aggravation in accessible spaces,” United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women Americas and the Caribbean, November 15, 2018; http://lac.unwomen.org/en/noticias-y-eventos/articulos/2018/11/feature-women-in-guatemala-steer-change-seek-solutions-to-end-sexual-harassment

[xxvi] Laura Vidal, “Women buck the burden of the Venezuelan crisis,” newtribuna.es, March 31, 2019, https://www.nuevatribuna.es/articulo/america-latina/mujeres-ninas-peorparte-crisisvenezolana-venezuela-pobreza/20190331103735161503.html

[xxvii] David Schaper, “New Program For Food Aid In Haiti Targets Women” NPR, February 1, 2010, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123202099

[xxviii] Kristen Cordell, “Women and Preventing Agitated Extremism at the Grassroots Level,” War On The Rocks, April 8, 2016. https://warontherocks.com/2016/04/women-and-preventing-violent-extremism-at-the-grassroots-level/ : Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016, 6. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xxix] Marcela Donadío et al., Women in the Armed and Badge Forces, RESDAL, Buenos Aires, 2010, 56. https://www.resdal.org/genero-y-paz/women-in-the-armed-and-police-forces.pdf

[xxx] Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstien, Countering Animal Abandon in Conflict,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2017. https://www.cfr.org/report/countering-sexual-violence-conflict

[xxxi] Vanessa Neumann, Blood Profits, How American Consumers Unwittingly Fund Terrorism, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2017: 117.

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[xxxii] Venezuela Investigative Unit, “Restrictions on Venezuela Migrants Boost Criminal Networks,” Insight Crime, September 11, 2018, https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/venezuela-migrant-restrictions-boost-criminal-networks/

[xxxiii] Associated Press, “Spain badge acquisition 2 bodies in baiter accustomed migrants, drugs,” Nov. 11, 2018, https://www.ny1.com/nyc/all-boroughs/ap-top-news/2018/11/11/spain-police-find-2-bodies-in-boat-carrying-migrants-drugs : Matthew Stein, “I Walked into the Biologic Den of Bogota — and survived” OZY, August 11, 2017,

 https://www.ozy.com/true-story/i-walked-into-the-drug-den-of-bogot-and-survived/80060 : Nicholas Casey, “A Former Girl Soldier in Colombia Finds ‘Life Is Hard’ as a Civilian,” The New York Times, April 27, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/28/world/americas/colombia-farc-child-soldiers.html

[xxxiv] David Nakamura, “U.S. aggressive sanctions 10 in Colombia corruption scandal,” The Washington Post, July 18, 2012, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/us-military-sanctions-10-in-colombia-prostitution-scandal/2012/07/18/gJQAnCjIuW_story.html?utm_term=.59c6cbd25dca

[xxxvi] Cathy Russel, “It’s Time to End Gender-Based Abandon in Conflict,” CFR, November 21, 2017, https://www.cfr.org/blog/its-time-end-gender-based-violence-conflict

[xxxvii] Department of Defense, “Department of Defense Accomplishing Guide for the U.S. National

Action Plan On Women, Peace, and Security.” Washington, D.C.  September 2013. 7 : Jamille Bigio and Rachel Vogelstein, “How Women’s Accord in Battle Blockage and Resolution Advances U.S. Interests,” Council on Adopted Relations, October 2016. https://www.cfr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/2016/10/Discussion_Paper_Bigio_Vogelstein_Women in CPR_OR.pdf

[xxxviii] Bill Mandrick, Acreage Rights and Amusing Justice as an Indicator of Stability: The SOF Nexus. Joint Special Operations University, 2017, 2.

[xxxix] Bill Mandrick, Acreage Rights and Amusing Justice as an Indicator of Stability: The SOF Nexus. Joint Special Operations University, 2017, 2.

[xl] Valarie M. Hudson, “Women Accord and Security” Presentation at Texas A&M Bush School, December 12 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6M1pqkrvbI4&t=1403s

[xli] Valarie M. Hudson, “Women Accord and Security” Presentation at Texas A&M Bush School, December 12 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6M1pqkrvbI4&t=1403s

[xlii] Valarie M. Hudson, “Women Accord and Security” Presentation at Texas A&M Bush School, December 12 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6M1pqkrvbI4&t=1403s

[xliii] Department of Defense, “Department of Defense Accomplishing Guide for the U.S. Civic Activity Plan On Women, Peace, and Security.” Washington, D.C.  September 2013, 7

[xliv] Kristen Cordell, “Women and Preventing Agitated Extremism at the Grassroots Level,” War On The Rocks, April 8, 2016. https://warontherocks.com/2016/04/women-and-preventing-violent-extremism-at-the-grassroots-level/

[xlv] https://cco.ndu.edu/News/Article/1768219/defending-democracy-and-human-rights-in-the-western-hemisphere/

[xlvi] Jamille Bigio and and Rebecca Turkington, “U.S. Counterterrorism’s Big Blindspot: Women,” The New Republic.

March 27, 2019, https://newrepublic.com/article/153402/us-counterterrorisms-big-blindspot-women

[xlvii] Sahana Dharmapuri, Jolynn Shoemaker, “Not the Usual Suspects: Agreeable Macho Champions of Women, Accord and Security, Our Secure Future, November 21, 2017, https://oursecurefuture.org/publications/engaging-male-champions-women-peace.

[xlviii] Kristen Cordell, “Women and Preventing Agitated Extremism at the Grassroots Level,” War On The Rocks, April 8, 2016. https://warontherocks.com/2016/04/women-and-preventing-violent-extremism-at-the-grassroots-level/

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OC Art Blog | latin american artist - latin american art blogs

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Intersecting Modernities: Latin American Art from The Brillembourg ... - latin american art blogs

Intersecting Modernities: Latin American Art from The Brillembourg … – latin american art blogs | latin american art blogs

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